In this lesson, we will learn the Arabic adjective. Unlike the English language, where the adjective precedes the noun, in Arabic, the adjective comes after the noun. Let’s look at examples to make it easier. In English we say: A new house, but in Arabic it’s: Baytun jadeed= بيتٌ جديدٌ.
So in this last example, the adjective “new” in English came before “house”, whereas in Arabic, it came after it.
Now let us memorize the following rules regarding Arabic adjectives:
1) The adjective in Arabic is called ‘Naat’, and the noun it describes is called ‘Manout’.
2) The adjective and its noun should have the same gender; either both masculine or both feminine. So we say: A small boy=Waladun sagheerun= ولدٌ صغيرٌ, but we say: A small girl=Bentun shageeratun= بنتٌ صغيرةٌ.
3) Both the adjective and its noun should either both be definite or both indefinite. So we either say: A new teacher=Modaressun jadeedun= مدرسٌ جديدٌ, or we say: The new teacher=Al-Modaressu l-Jadeedu.
4) Both the adjective & its noun take the same case, so they both take Fathah, or Dammah, or Kassrah or their doubles ‘tanween’. So we say: A new house=Baytun jadeedun= بيتٌ جديدُ, or: In a new house=Fi baytin jadeedin= في بيتٍ جديدٍ.
5) The adjectives ending with the two letters ‘A’ and ‘N’ in Arabic ان don’t take a double: Fathah, Kassrah or Dammah ‘tanween’. So the words: Lazy=Kasslaan= كسلان, Hungry=Jawaan= جوعان, Thirsty=Aatshaan= عطشان and Angry=Ghadbaan= غضبان don’t take ‘tanween’.